Колебания ледников в голоцене и возможное влияние на них орбитального сигнала, солнечной и вулканической активности и антропогенного воздействия


https://doi.org/10.15356/2076-6734-2014-3-81-90

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Аннотация

Амплитуда наступаний ледников в голоцене в Северном полушарии в целом увеличивалась, а в Южном – уменьшалась. Этот тренд объясняется изменениями инсоляции, связанными с орбитальными параметрами Земли. Исключение из этого правила – некоторые районы Центральной Азии, где размеры ледников в голоцене уменьшались. 10–4 тыс. л.н. и в течение первого тысячелетия н.э. (примерно до начала XIII в.) размеры ледников были близки к современным или были меньше их. Этот тренд подтверждается данными о колебаниях верхней и северной границ леса в Северном полушарии в голоцене. Период (7–5 тыс. л.н.), когда ледники имели небольшие размеры, а их наступание почти нигде не зафиксировано, совпадает с периодом отсутствия крупных эксплозивных извержений и низкой солнечной активности. Раннеголоценовые морены (период от 11,1 до 8,1 тыс. л.н.) объединяются в несколько групп и совпадают с циклами Бонда (11,1; 10,3; 9,4; 8,1 тыс. л.н.) и крупными вулканическими извержениями (11,0; 9,5–9,7; 9,1–9,3; 8,0–8,1 тыс. л.н.). Из-за совпадения некоторых извержений с циклами Бонда (которые в свою очередь совпадают с минимумами солнечной активности) влияние вулканической деятельности и солнечной активности трудно разграничить. Влияние солнечной и вулканической активности на поведение ледников в среднем голоцене неочевидно, но в последние два тысячелетия (событие 1,4 тыс. л.н. и малый ледниковый период) корреляция вновь становится заметной. Современное отступание ледников не согласуется с современным орбитальным сигналом, но связано с ростом солнечной активности и концентрации парниковых газов. Колебания ледников в разных районах не обнаруживают глобальной синхронности и строгой периодичности в течение голоцена. Однако отсутствие таких свидетельств может быть связано также с ограничением данных о колебаниях ледников (дискретные ряды, неполнота данных, низкая точность датирования, влияние температуры и осадков на колебания ледников др.).


Об авторе

О. Н. Соломина
Институт географии РАН, Москва, Томский государственный университет
Россия


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Дополнительные файлы

Для цитирования: Соломина О.Н. Колебания ледников в голоцене и возможное влияние на них орбитального сигнала, солнечной и вулканической активности и антропогенного воздействия. Лёд и Снег. 2014;54(3):81-90. https://doi.org/10.15356/2076-6734-2014-3-81-90

For citation: Solomina O.N. Holocene glacier variations and their potential orbital, solar, volcanic and anthropogenic forcings. Ice and Snow. 2014;54(3):81-90. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.15356/2076-6734-2014-3-81-90

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